In a word, yes! How does the length of an air hose affect whether or not your air tools work properly?
It is because compressed air flowing through an air line, whether a rubber hose, a PVC hose, a copper pipe, or black iron pipe, encounters resistance as the air flows along the inner surface of the air line. This slows the flow of compressed air at the edges.
The turbulence created by the flow of compressed air rubbing against the walls of the air hose or pipe, and a particularly over long distance, creates a significant amount of turbulence in the air hose.
The longer the hose the greater the impact of this turbulence on the flow of air. The net result of this is loss of compressed air flow and that results in the pressure drop where the air exits the air hose to the air tool.
If you started with 100′ of 1/2″ rubber hose, and pumped air at 100 PSI into one end of it, you would not get 100 PSI out the other end.
The amount pressure drop can be seen by reading the air gauge at the tank, and then by plumbing the end of the hose into an air gauge that has a coupler attached. Pressure loss will be lower or greater, this depending on the smoothness of the inner air hose surface.
Add another 100′ of hose and your pressure at the end of 200′ of run would be less, even though you are still pouring a constant flow of air at 100 PSI into the hose at the supply end. Make the hose longer still, and the yield at the air-tool end would be less still.
Then, if you add elbows, angles and tees to the air line, each time you do, you increase resistance to flow even further, and this costs you in flow and pressure at the point of use.
What can be done then when air is required some distance from the air compressor to help reduce the effects of a lengthy air hose on compressed air loss.
If the air compressor is portable the tendency may be to move the compressor closer to the point of use, this reducing the amount of air hose necessary to get air to the air tool.
This can create a separate problem however because if the air compressor is electrically powered then one would need to use an extension cord to get power to the motor when the compressor is some distance from the power source. If a too small extension cord is used, this meaning that the gauge of the wire is too thin, then the compressor motor will be underpowered leading to maintenance issues with the motor and possibly the compressor not running at all.
What can be done while limiting exposure to maintenance issues is to increase the diameter of the air hose.
A larger air hose, while still having turbulence where the compressed air meets the walls of the hose, will have a greater amount of air in the middle of the hose that has experienced less exposure to the turbulence resulting in greater flow to the air tool at the end of the hose.
If there is a need to add to fittings keep the number of air fittings to the absolute minimum.
If possible, increase the air pressure entering the hose. Starting with a higher air pressure means, even though you will lose flow and pressure due to turbulence in the air line still, the higher the compressed air pressure at the hose beginning will mean more higher pressure and flow at the air tool end.